CBD is one of more than 80 active cannabinoid chemicals in cannabis and hemp. Unlike tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD does not produce euphoria or intoxication. Cannabinoids have their effect mainly by interacting with specific receptors on cells in the brain and body: the CB1 receptor, found on neurons and glial cells in various parts of the brain, and the CB2 receptor, found mainly in the bodys immune system. There is also growing evidence that CBD acts on other brain signaling systems, and that these actions may be important contributors to its therapeutic effects. Pre-clinical research has shown CBD to have a range of effects that may be therapeutically useful, including anti-seizure, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, anti-psychotic, anti-anxiety, and more. You may see what the National Institute for Health says here: https://www.drugabuse.gov/about-nida/legislative-activities/testimony-to-congress/2016/biology-potential-therapeutic-effects-cannabidiol
Terpenes are common constituents of herbal medicines, flavorings, and fragrances. Terpenes, unlike cannabinoids, are responsible for the taste and aroma of hemp and cannabis. The FDA and other agencies have generally recognized terpenes as "safe". Both the hemp and cannabis plant consist of a wide variety of chemicals and compounds. About 140 of these belong to a large class of aromatic organic hydrocarbons known as terpenes or terpenoids. The words terpene and terpenoid are increasingly used interchangeably, although these terms do have different meanings. The main difference between terpenes and terpenoids is that terpenes are hydrocarbons (meaning the only elements present are carbon and hydrogen); whereas, terpenoids have been denatured by oxidation or chemical modification. Terpenes act on receptors and neurotransmitters; they are prone to combine with or dissolve in lipids or fats; they can act as serotonin uptake inhibitors (like Prozac); they can enhance norepinephrine activity (like Elavil); they can increase dopamine activity; augment GABA, facilitate passage of cannabinoids through the blood/brain barrier and more. They have been effectively used in herbal medicine for thousands of years. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terpene
Nanotechnology has provided the possibility of delivering drugs to specific cells using nanoparticles. The overall drug consumption and side-effects may be lowered significantly by depositing the active agent in the morbid region only and in no higher dose than needed. Targeted drug delivery is intended to reduce the side effects of drugs with concomitant decreases in consumption and treatment expenses. Drug delivery focuses on maximizing bioavailability both at specific places in the body and over a period of time. The efficacy of drug delivery through nanomedicine is largely based upon: a) efficient encapsulation of the drugs, b) successful delivery of drug to the targeted region of the body, and c) successful release of the drug. Functionalities can be added to nanomaterials by interfacing them with biological molecules or structures. The size of nanomaterials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. Thus far, the integration of nanomaterials with biology has led to the development of diagnostic devices, contrast agents, analytical tools, physical therapy applications, and drug delivery vehicles. https://www.google.com/patents/WO2016144376A1?cl=en
Regarding the use of liposomes as a carrier of dietary and nutritional supplements; until very recently the use of liposomes was primarily directed at large pharmaceutical targeted drug delivery. However, the versatile abilities of liposomes are now being discovered in other settings. A very small number of dietary and nutritional supplement companies are currently pioneering the benefits of this unique science towards this new application. This new direction and employment of liposome science is in part due to the low absorption and bioavailability rates of traditional oral dietary and nutritional tablets and capsules. The low oral bioavailability and absorption of many nutrients is clinically well documented. Â Therefore, the natural encapsulation of lypophilic and hydrophilic nutrients within liposomes has made for a very effective method of bypassing the destructive elements of the gastric system and aiding the encapsulated nutrient to be delivered to the cells and tissues. There are very crucial elements which lead to the long-term stability of the liposomes. These complex yet significant factors are the following: (1) The actual manufacturing method and preparation of the liposomes themselves; (2) The constitution, quality, and type of raw phospholipid used in the formulation and manufacturing of the liposomes; (3) The ability to create homogeneous liposome particle sizes that are stable and hold their encapsulated payload. These primary and key elements comprise the foundation of an effective liposome carrier for use in increasing the bioavailability of oral dosages of dietary and nutritional supplements.
Cannabinoid Deficiency? Yes, it is a real medical condition called Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD). and may be seen here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18404144 at the US National Library of Medicine and National Institute of Health. This condition is thought to be a causation factor in the pathophysiology of migraines, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and many other functional conditions alleviated by clinical phyto-cannabinoids.
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